A Study on the Algorithm of Rapid Daylight Analysis for Large Scale Apartment Complex
Spatial Daylight Autonomy (SDA) and Annual Sunlight Exposure (ASE) is the most commonly used metrics for lighting analysis in recent sustainable design for professional architects or researchers. The result by SDA and ASE, however, is too complicated for the residents to understand what it means and is taking too much time for the calculation, due to indirect bounce light, especially when it comes to a massive number of apartment units. In this regards, Korean people, when they seek for the apartment in Seoul where the high-rise apartments are the most popular type of residence, usually tend to obsess direct sunlight of the unit but have no measures to compare it with other apartments. Therefore, this paper aims to define the simple index of annual sun hours per apartment unit and introduce an algorithm which can execute the calculation of the index for a massive number of apartment units in real time. The index would point out which unit is getting most or least of light and visualize how it is spreading in the building mass. Moreover, it could orient architects to design apartments of favorable conditions in terms of light on an evidence basis.
로봇 기술의 진보에 따라 로봇의 활용이 건축영역으로까지 확산되고 있다. 기존의 건축 방식은시간이 많이 소요되고, 많은 인력이 요구된다는문제점이 있어 3D Printing 을 통해 건축물을 제작하고자 하는 시도가 보고되고 있다. 이를 위해 대면적 대응이 용이한케이블 로봇을 3D Printing 에적용하고자 하는 연구가 진행 중이다. 케이블 로은 주기등 이외의 기계구조물이 최소화 되어 대형화에 적합하고 다양한 크기의 작업공간에 가변적으로 대응할 수 있는 장점이 있다.
Due to the rapidly aging population, the death rate of elderly people by safety accidents has been increasing. In particular, precautions are needed for falls prevention because they either directly or indirectly cause death. In the case of elderly people, most of the fall accidents occur in dense residential areas, and particularly, the staircase poses a risk of falling. Therefore, a safety assessment should be performed from the design phase. However, in general, staircases are designed using existing stair data or only aims to satisfy the installation criteria. Laws and regulations only define minimum requirements for safety, so it is not possible to prevent fall accidents even if they satisfy the requirements. Therefore, this study proposes a simulation-based method for evaluating the safety of staircases. The behavioral characteristics of the elderly are implemented to an virtual user in a virtual space including staircases, and fall accidents are evaluated by the evaluation logic related to the behavioral characteristics. The result shows that the safety of staircases can be preevaluated and reflected on the design to reduce the possibility of fall accidents of the elderly.
A study on BRP(Building Rapid Printing) technology is in an initial stage although general 3d printers are being developed in a great speed and with fruitful outputs. Even some laboratories in advanced countries have difficulties in their research due to many technological restrictions and have not produced a practical output yet. This paper proposed distinct directions in which the research of this aera should be developed and this manifested four areas - printing speed, reinforcing tech, material tech and nozzle tech and those areas were proposed with concrete development alternatives and objects.
The work flow from the preliminary to schematic design in architectural projects has been changing dramatically due to the digital technology, and its core part is implementing BIM from the beginning. The problem is that BIM software is not yet optimized for the beginning phase of the project when an architect tries various options rapidly. What architects generally does is to explore the form freely with 3d software and transfer it to BIM for further information modeling. Main issue is that this digital sequence is not seamlessly executed due to the complications of 3d data inter-connectivity. This study is exploring the inter-connectivity of the 3d modeling data from preliminary design phase by 3d software and tries to find out how to make this process more uninterrupted by analysing the categorized generic projects. The projects include rectangular and free form shape buildings and the analysis is implemented regarding 3 parts – form, properties, and information of 3d data. For the analysis, Sketchup and Rhino are used for 3d software and Revit by Autodesk are used for BIM software. Those programs were selected because they are most favorite softwares used by architects in Korea. This study suggests as a conclusion, out of the analysis result of 3 parts, how to utilize BIM software in schematic design efficiently and seamlessly from the schematic design.
The aim of this research was to examine the correlation between the performance of daylight and geometry of FREEFORM atrium. In consideration of the solar environments that have the greatest effect on the atrium, categorized and classified types of transformations were introduced. Atrium classification defined by vertical axis, plan scale and rotation is used to determine the transformation and the type. Several atrium cases, characterized by a different form or shape, were analysed by simplified methodology to predict DF(daylight factor), direct sunlight area and Uniformity Ratio on the atrium floor, through computer simulation by Ecotect and Radiance. Simulation programmes were used to simulate square, four-sided, top-lit atria under overcast and clear sky conditions. This study has investigated the effect on daylight performance of the geometric characteristics of atrium such as PAR, distance, translation vector, types of curve, height and angle. From the results, the design guidelines are proposed as follows. All types show a decrease of light influx and increase of UR as the atrium height increases. The height of atruim, therefore, should be considered first regardless of form class or the variables of atrium. Performance shows a big difference according to the light direction if certain transformation is made along a direction. It is maximized when the transformation aligns to the direction of light and converges to the rectangular shape with low PAR. There is a decrease in performance under the environment of lights from all directions like Overcast sky.
While more attentions are paid to environmental design to prevent crimes as school crimes against children have been increased, the reality in Korea is that insufficient consideration was given to separate CPTED guidelines or fear of crimes felt by students in schools. Thus, this study is to figure out physical environmental factors in schools which affect children’s fear of crimes and to draw improvement direction of the CPTED guidelines to improve thereof. The flow of the study is as follows: Firstly, by deducting limitation of the current guidelines through analysis of the CPTED guidelines of the schools in which such guidelines have been established and implemented, the direction of this study is set up and the variables for physical environment of schools are generated. Secondly, I analyze the current physical status of the selected target areas and investigate the factors causing fears of crimes of the physical environmental factors for the children attending the target schools. Thirdly, I make a study on the facility plans to reduce fear of crimes through correlation analysis between the current physical status of the target schools based on the CPTED guidelines being conducted and fear of crimes felt by their students, and comparative analysis between the target areas. I have drawn physical environmental factors of schools affecting fear of crimes, a measure of facility planning to reduce fear of crimes within each facility, and supplementary measures for the CPTED guidelines through this study.
In working process, design errors have become one the most critical factors influencing the final quality of design and its construction. Those errors cause several problems like the cost escalation and time delay in construction. In recent years, BIM(Building Information Modeling) Technology has been applied in many projects with its capability of checking errors visually. However, since there has been numerous changes and systematic developments after the first generation of BIM, new types of functional errors also occur. So, the objective of this paper is to research those critical errors in the process of designing with new generation of BIM. The process of the research is following. 1) The primary types of BIM design errors are divided into six categories. 2) Specific design error causes can be defined within the parameter of each category. 3) The relationship between the errors and the causes are analyzed.
In order to utilize the information of architecture and city as a travel and tourism database, this study aims to manifest the service contents and the structure of the information which is indispensible for the database. For that purpose, the various architectural information service as well as tourism service has been analyzed and the problems were identified to propose the contents as an improvement of existing service. The results are as follows : First, the existing architectural and urban information have to be maintained but, for the specialty of information, the detailed facts about an architect and a building should be added to the existing database. Second, for maximizing the value as a tourism information, supplementary sources like a short clip using a video technology should be added to the existing tourism database and the thematic search contents should be introduced for the improved accessibility. Third, the information provider is recommended to be the professionals in each category and they should be disclosed for the information reliability. Finally, the optimized contents calls for a integrated service system using not only tourism but also architecture and city.
This study aims to propose the ways of improving a classification system of architectural material in Construction Information Classification System which was revised at 2006. For that purpose, existing problems of the system were identified and overseas systems were analyzed in order to find out a new system which is appropriate to Korean practices and compatible to International standards as well. The results are as follows: First, the system should be related to that of construction process. Second, the existing numbering system of the classification should be revised to be 6 digits for the readability and eligibility. Third, an mutual effort from the architectural industry, government and other professional entity should be given to maintain and revise the standards for the viable operation of the system.
In the representation of buildings with continuous changes in the curved shape of the surface, countless plans or sections are required, or none of the traditional drawings can explain the geometry of it. In other words, in no case can an ordinary drawing achieve the efficient and clear communication capability which is inherent function of the drawings. As a result, the current architects are introducing their own way of drawing technique which is developed in accordance with a specific curved shape, construction method or company resources, but this is not what can be applied to other cases because it has not been ever shared or agreed in the industry. In this process, the drawing or construction of curved building has been recognized as the exclusive property of a specific expert, or the design and construction without the in-depth understanding of the technology have resulted in the appearance of poor buildings. Therefore, this study aims to present an elements and method that can convey shape information more effectively and clearly in the drawing representation of non-linear buildings and, thus, contributes to lowering the barriers to entry into the field by providing the information to be easily applied to related projects. In order to attain this goal, the drawings of recently completed projects of free form building are analyzed to reveal the method used to effectively express the shape information of the building and to derive new drawing elements that have not been applied to the existing drawings.
Shape and size optimization of functionally graded sandwich plates using isogeometric analysis and adaptive hybrid evolutionary firefly algorithm
The paper presents an effective methodology for modeling and simultaneously optimizing the layer thicknesses (shape) and the ceramic volume fraction distribution (size) of functionally graded (FG) sandwich plates under free vibration in the framework of isogeometric analysis (IGA). The multi-patch B-spline basis functions separately defined in each of the layer thicknesses are used to represent the ceramic volume fraction distribution. Accordingly, the C0− continuity at layer interfaces can be naturally satisfied without any additional conditions. Furthermore, this multi-patch B-spline representation still ensures the continuously and smoothly varying material properties across each layer thickness. The effective material properties are then estimated by either the rule of mixture or the Mori-Tanaka scheme. A non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS)-based isogeometric finite element model associated with the third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is utilized for the plate free vibration analysis. A recently developed adaptive hybrid evolutionary firefly algorithm (AHEFA) with the improvement on the convergence speed and the solution accuracy is employed as an optimizer. Design variables are the layer thicknesses and the ceramic volume fractions at control points located in the thickness direction. Several numerical examples of two types of optimization problems of the FG sandwich plates, including (i) the first natural frequency maximization with volume constraints, and (ii) mass minimization with frequency constraints, are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed method.
BIM library is a critical part in BIM implementation in design as well as in construction. Current status, however, shows that the companies are struggling even just for setting up the library itself due to the lack of standards. Without proper standards, it makes difficult not only sharing libraries among companies but also implementing BIM work environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the number of current BIM library systems and to propose a strategy of standardization of classification system as well as a sample standard of property information structure. In order to achieve this, current major classification systems that are adopted in building industry of domestic as well as foreign countries were analysed to be applied to BIM library and finally modified to facilitate the need of BIM industry.
Shopping space is becoming more complex with the programs other than shopping as intangible service has developed nowadays. Shopping, therefore, is now to create a public space which is not directly related to the sales but leads to a variety of experiences. Public space in shopping mall, however, tends to be treated with less knowledge or standards of how this space can react to shopper behavior and thus, affect the sales. It is architect’s responsibility to design this space to function more in predictable manner, not just to take the role of circulation only. The purpose of this study is to classify the types of public space in commercial complex based on the Prospect-Refuge Theory, to explain the user preferences according to the type and finally to reveal the architectural elements of each type for the architect’s reference. There are four types of public space - open space, observation space, closed space and exposed space. They are found in the public spaces of 5 major shopping complexes in Seoul that were analysed in this study. Architectural elements were also observed along with people’s behavior around them. As a conclusion, people likes to stay and move to observation space from exposed space even in public space and relevant elements of those types which makes the type more evident were summarized in terms of vision and exposure under the horizontal as well as vertical space.
Recently, 3d printers have been used not only in manufactures but also in various industries. There are also researches in architectural field to apply 3d printing technology to construction sector, but the 3D printer on the market today has a technical limit. In this paper, it will be clarified regarding what parts in size and material of printer are related to this limitation and proposed applicability and feasibility of 3d printing technology applied to actual building with regards to the size and the material of the new 3d printer for building
This paper focuses on various methods of fabricating a curved surface of free form architecture and introduces a new approach of classifying the types of the fabrications and utilizing the features of those types. Double curved surface fabrications are classified under 3 categories; dividing type, developing type and pattern type. The matrix of two categories is then, applied to case studies to show clearly the effect and the result of utilizing each fabrication category combination in real building construction, which helps designers find out relevant construction method for the curved surface created. The features of fabrication types are analyzed in this paper regarding model surface by computational programs in order to reveal the factors such as reasonable cost, aesthetic quality and surface continuity. This result will help designers understand better their free form design and its fabrication as well as re-interpret and optimize them.
Given the increasing globalization of the architect profession, architectural accreditation has become a global norm for assuring quality of architectural programs in universities. Since the early 2000s, many architectural departments in Korean universities have actively participated in the accreditation set by the Korea Architectural Accrediting Board. The crux of the accreditation is to run architectural programs in accordance with 37 elements of the Student Performance Criteria(SPC). The current SPC have limitations in that they do not properly reflect the importance of practical needs and competence required by architecture firms. The objective of the study is to analyze and discuss the practical importance of the SPC from the perspectives of architecture firms by using the fuzzy AHP and fuzzy set theory. It is important to understand the practical importance of the SPC in order for architectural programs to educate students with practical competence as expected by their future employers.
The design and construction costs of tall buildings are relatively higher than those of general buildings due to their complex spatial configuration and high density. Since the economic impact from the high-rise buildings is quite large, more careful approach is needed at the initial stage of the planning based on the actual efficiency analysis. This research is performed to develop the method of measuring the mass efficiency quantitatively to enhance the economical aspect of high-rise buildings. Brief result of the research is that, unlike the general prejudice to comparative efficiencies among certain geometric shapes, actual estimated differences are not that great in about 4% ranges. Other comparative evaluations can be observed in the paper such as the differences between the regular and the irregular shapes.
Facade free from structure was found in the changes by reinforced concrete structure of modern architecture. The changes by new digital technology of contemporary architecture have made skin connected with forms so that the logic of tectonic could come out through skin. However the general point of view about skin is a decorated surface understood from a philosophical and sociological concept. This paper investigates the tectonic meaning of contemporary architectural skin which is not just a decorated surface but is skin that continuous with construction methods. Digital design technologies used at the generation phase in digital architecture are Solid Modeling, NURBS, Blob Modeling, Reverse Engineering, Parametric Design, Algorithm Method, Diagram Method, Image Rule Process and etc. The Skin generated by the digital design technologies mentioned above is lead to production mechanism, such as File to Factory. Continuous process of File to Factory that is possible through digital manufacturing technique is constructed actually through parts manufacture process and field assembly that use CNC machine. The characteristics of generation are realized through the process of substantialization which means the revelation of a materiality and the combined relation of structure.
A development of design technology and the change in traditional design process have resulted in the transformation of architectural practice. Recently, the development is being accelerating because new technology of BIM (Building Information Modeling) has been introduced along with these changes. A change of organizational structure in architectural firm is, as a result, required for the efficiency of the communication and design work supported by this new technology and process. The purpose of this study is to makes suggestions for a new type of form and environment of the organization structure in an architectural firm.